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«Russkaya starina» – history scientific Journal.

E-ISSN 2409-2118
Publication frequency – issued 2 times a year.
Issued from 2010.

2 December 12, 2022


1. Evgeny V. Astaf’ev
The Role of the Tsaritsyn Line in the History of the Kalmyks

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 57-77.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.57CrossRef

The article deals with the history of relations between the Russian population and nomadic peoples in the Middle and Lower Volga regions in the 1720–1770s. Particular attention is paid to relations with the Kalmyk people and the participation of the Russian government in their internal political life. It is studied the experience of using in these relations of the Tsaritsyn guard line, built in 1718–1720 by decree of Peter I between the Volga and Don rivers in order to stop the raids of the Crimean and Kuban Tatars on Russian territories, as a powerful political tool, as well as its role in the life and fate of the Kalmyks and other nomadic peoples who traditionally used the interfluve of the Volga and Don for their nomadic pastures. On the basis of an array of studied archival documents (official correspondence between the Russian administration and the Kalmyk khans and owners, reports of officials of the Kalmyk affairs, officers of dragoon regiments serving on the line, and a number of other documents), introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, the practice of Kalmyk nomad camps in Russian territories under the protection of the Tsaritsyn line is examined. It is provided the information on the numerous facts of thefts, robberies and murders of the civilian population, both by “thieves” Kalmyks who illegally penetrated into Russian territories, and by the dependent Kalmyks, officially allowed to roam “inside” the Tsaritsyn line. Based on the analysis of the identified documents, the author drew up a plan of the boundaries of the territories allowed for the Kalmyk nomad camps, and also determined the places of most outposts located along the borders of the nomad camps, where the city Cossacks from the Kalmyk affairs team, Don and Volga Cossacks and Cossacks of the Sloboda regiments served at different periods of time.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670875965.pdf
Number of views: 61      Download in PDF

2. Yuri S. Sulaberidze
The Role of the Military History Department of the Headquarters of the Caucasian Military District in Preserving the Historical Memory of the late 19th and early 20th centuries

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 78-88.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.78CrossRef

The article reveals one of the most important aspects of the activities of the Military History Department of the Headquarters of the Caucasian Military District in the description and creation of monuments of military valor in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The author traces the work on the preservation of single and mass burial, the creation of monuments-obelisks to heroes of the Caucasian wars on the territory of the South Caucasus. The source of the study is the archival materials deposited in the fund 1087 of the Central Historical Archive of Georgia: reports of the heads of the Military Historical Department and other cases related to the description of memorial sites. The work done by the staff of the Department and its numerous assistants – the officers of the combat units – was reflected in two issues of the publication “Monuments of the Times of the Establishment of Russian Rule in the Caucasus” (Tiflis, 1906–1909). This work is the most important document of historical memory about the Caucasian War. The activity of Military Historical Department served to educate patriotism, high spiritual principles in defending of the Motherland, transferring of military traditions of “old Caucasians” to the younger generation.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876010.pdf
Number of views: 55      Download in PDF

3. Oleg A. Grom
National Problems on the Pages of the Don Newspapers of early 20th century

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 89-101.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.89CrossRef

The article deals with the analysis of the reflection of national issues on the pages of newspapers published in the Province (Oblast) of the Don Cossack Host between the First Russian Revolution and the First World War. The examined publications can be, for convenience, divided into conservative-monarchist ones (“Styag”, “Rostovskiy-na-Donu listok”) and liberal-progressist ones (“Priazovskiy Kray”, “Yuzhnyi Telegraf”, “Taganrogskiy vestnik”). For the first group, the national question was the dominant theme, reflected in all published materials from editorials to advertisements. The main subjects of the right-wing newspapers of the Don were Jewish and Armenian questions. The staff of “progressist” newspapers discussed the national issues only occasionally, usually in the context of covering the activities of right-wing and nationalist parties. An analysis of the debates on to the essence and role of nationalism occurred in early 1912 in the Taganrog and Rostov newspapers shows that among the “progressists” there was no single understanding of the national question.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876075.pdf
Number of views: 41      Download in PDF

4. Olga M. Morozova, Alina D. Smirnova
Construction of Space and Man: Soviet Park Culture as Political Technology

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 102-117.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.102CrossRef

Improving of park areas in the 1930s became an important element in the restructuring of the cities and industrial centers on the basis of the Soviet communal services. Being a habitual center of public activity associated with memorable events for the new government, the M. Gorky city park in Rostov-on-Don became a tool for visual propaganda of an affordable and comfortable new way of life. It is noted that in the system of ongoing events, the methods of political technologies are clearly identified. At the same time, on the basis of archival textual and visual sources, a reconstruction of the early history of the city garden and the connection of the object with the socio-political events of the city and region was carried out.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876117.pdf
Number of views: 66      Download in PDF

5. Evgeny F. Krinko, Victoria V. Khilkevich
The War of Extermination of the Invaders against Soviet Citizens: on the Materials of the Otradnensky District of the Krasnodar Krai (1942–1943)

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 118-130.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.118CrossRef

The article deals with the Nazi occupation of the Otradnensky district of the Krasnodar Krai during the Great Patriotic War. The authors analyzed the documents from two local archives and museum, publications of local historians, memories of eyewitnesses, photographs and other historical sources. Residents of the Otradnensky district and evacuated citizens during the occupation were constantly subjected to mass violence, discrimination and physical annihilation. According to official documents, the total number of Soviet citizens who died is defined as 109 people. But only in one mass grave of the area of the former Otradnensky hydroelectric power station 500 people murdered by occupants in October 1942 are indicated. The extermination policy of occupants was a result of Nazi ideology and propaganda calling for the destruction of the representatives of “inferior” races. However, the names of many victims of the occupation are still unknown, as well as their burial places. At the same time, there is an evidence of the rescue of several Jews evacuated by the residents.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876163.pdf
Number of views: 74      Download in PDF

6. Nicholas W. Mitiukov
Reconstruction of the Biography of the boat “Bolshevik” of the Plant “Udmurtles”

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 131-140.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.131CrossRef

The fleets of forestries, especially multi-profile ones, where timber rafting was not their main occupation, still remain one of the less studied pages of the history of river transport. In their priorities, water transport was significantly inferior to automobile and tractor, and even horse-drawn transport. For this reason, the annual reports of such farms, even if they had a fleet, usually ignored the filling in of special forms on water transport. In the work, based on a comparison of synchronous documentation for the Izhevsk operational office and enterprises of the association “Udmurtles”, the biography of the boat “Bolshevik” was reconstructed. In all likelihood, this is the former boat No. 57 of the Sarapul raid of the Kamlesosplav, transferred in 1943 to the Sarapul timber processing plant. In 1958, the ship was handed over to the Izhevsk Construction Department and transported to the Izhevsk Pond, where in 1959 it was handed over to the Izhevsk Operational Office. Here the ship was renamed “Puteets” and handed over to the way’s service, where, probably, the engine was replaced on it. The ship was in operation until 1961, until it was replaced by the boat “Kambaryak”. Apparently, the final write-off of the ship was made only in January 1962, when the ships were transferred to the Izhevsk operational office in connection with the liquidation of the Udmurt administration of small rivers.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876202.pdf
Number of views: 66      Download in PDF


7. Alexey S. Tishchenko
The Fate of Rus’ in the Journalism of the 16th century

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 141-148.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.141CrossRef

The article deals with the analysis of the theme of the historical fate of Rus’ on the material of publicist works of the 16th century – “The Tale of the Princes of Vladimir” and the works of Ivan Peresvetov. The analysis shows that these monuments reflect various issues related to the theme of the historical fate of the Russian state: the origin of the ruling dynasty in Russia, the requirements for the figure of the ruler, the question of the form of government and the internal structure of the state, the Messianic significance of the Russian Orthodox Kingdom. The analysis of journalistic writings shows that Russia was interpreted as a state with a unique destiny, history, historical mission, as a civilizational space in the context of world powers. The written records create a special image of the head of state – a ruler “by birth”, who received power from God himself, responsible to his subjects and to God, a “guide” of truth.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876243.pdf
Number of views: 39      Download in PDF

8. Natalia V. Dmitrieva
The National Question in the Political Views of K.D. Kavelin

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 149-155.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.149CrossRef

The article analyzes the approaches to solving the national question in post-reform Russia by one of the prominent representatives of liberal social thought K.D. Kavelin, who analyzed in detail the peculiarities of the situation and the level of requests of non-Russian peoples within the empire. In the second half of the XIX century, after the suppression of the uprising in the Kingdom of Poland in 1864, representatives of Russian liberal social thought realized that the economic, political and cultural development of the peoples during this period actualized the problem of acceptable legal guarantees of equality within the framework of multi-ethnic states. Attention is focused on a special interpretation of K.D. Kavelin of the policy pursued by the tsarist government towards non-Russian peoples. In the specific conditions of post-reform Russia, the scientist was especially concerned about the negative attitude towards non-Russian peoples. The conclusion is made about the applied nature of the scientist’s works on the national question, the solution of which was supposed to be through the expansion of the rights of local governments, primarily for the more developed peoples of the west and north of Russia from his point of view.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876285.pdf
Number of views: 68      Download in PDF

9. Marina Ch. Larionova, Alla R. Lisitsa
Anton Chekhov and Adventure Literature

Russkaya Starina. 2022. 13(2): 156-162.
DOI: 10.13187/rs.2022.2.156CrossRef

The article deals with the reception of adventure topic in the prose of A.P. Chekhov. For the purpose to determine the place of adventurous literature in readers' consciousness in Russia at the end of 19th century, the authors aim at the autobiographical novel of I.S. Shmelev “How I met Chekhov”, in which the image of Chekhov-reader (similar to his writer's image in his early works) arises. Numerous names of classics and their works mentioned by Chekhov have been collected and analysed. The authors suggest differentiation of this material basing on the principle of functionality. On one side, the texts which imply the dialogue between the author and classic adventurous fiction (these are the stylization presented in “The Flying Islands” and the short story “Boys”) are thoroughly analyzed. On the other side, mentions of adventurous literary texts and their authors, fulfilling the function of an artistic detail and portrait or landscape characteristics (such as “Tumbleweed”, “The Last Mohican”, “At the Mill”, “A Happy Men”, “Idyll”, “Sakhalin Island”), are considered. It is shown that “The Flying Islands” contain critical conceptualization of not only the characteristics of Jules Verne's novels but the overall tradition of foreign adventurous literature. In the short story “Boys”, which is considered by scholars as a text of the late period of A.P. Chekhov's works, the peculiarities of reception of novels about indigenous people by children are identified.

URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876346.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF

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URL: https://rs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1670876363.pdf
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